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Last Updated: 11/29/2007

NOTE - All Buick V6 information NOT specific to the Turbo V6 has been moved to the NA V6 NOTES PAGE. It is highly recommend that Turbo V6 owners read the NA V6 NOTES as well!


Below are some helpful facts and technical tips specific to the 1978-83 Buick Turbo V6. Please visit the Turbo Regal Web Site and it's Technical Information Articles. While not always applicable to our earlier cars, there is quite a bit of useful information here. Most of the below entries are the results of question and answers from the Message Board. If you have a question not addressed here, have additional information, need clarification or disagree with something listed here, PLEASE post a message on the MESSAGE BOARD!

What would I do if I where going to race my Turbo Buick? See the Racing the 1978-83 Turbo V6 Buick page!

DISCLAIMER - Although I believe that the following are all true, please verify them before making any decision involving the restoration/modification of your vehicle. Some entries do not apply to all years/models. Also check with Federal/State laws before modifying or removing any emissions control devices.


CONVERTING A NON-TURBO V6 TO A TURBO V6? - If you have a normally aspirated (NA) Buick V6 and you want to add a turbocharger to it for some easy horsepower, please read "CONVERT TO A CARB/TURBO?" first. It's a little long, but it should be very helpful. Also read about an alternative to the factory draw-thru system; "CONVERT TO A CARB/TURBO? PART II?"

TURBO V6 and NAV6 PARTS INTERCHANGE- Finding a Turbo 3.8 in the junk yard can be next to impossible. The NA 3.8 can be a great source of parts. Blocks, heads, left side exhaust manifolds and many accessories interchange. Just check a parts catalog or compare casting numbers (or ask the Message Board). Even better, is the 4.1 litre (252 ci) Buick V6. Not only does it have a Quadrajet, but also a rolled fillet (turbo) crack and the ESC system (1981-'84). You may also find larger radiators and higher amp generators in 4.1 cars. Here is a list of GM CARS WITH THE 4.1 V6, courtesy of David Chase, Silver6.

"RWD" BLOCKS - All Turbo Buick's were rear wheel drive (RWD) with the exception of the Riviera.  The Riviera did however use the same long block as the RWD models - just the bolt-ons (exhaust, turbo, etc.) were different.  The Riviera's motor was place longitudinal versus the transverse mounting of later FWD Buicks.  The transverse FWD Buicks did not share the same block (trans mounting was different).  Since it shares the same block as the RWD's, it is commonly referred to as the "RWD block" even though it was technically in a FWD car.

LIFTER TICKING? - If you think you have a lifter ticking, first check for a cracked exhaust manifold or leaking gasket. These are very common problems on the Turbo V6, and sound very much like a ticking lifter. It's worth a look and much, much easier to repair.


AIR INJECTION PUMP DELETE - First off, I don't consider bypassing or removing the AIR (smog) pump a performance modification.  The parasitic drag on the pump is minimal.  I removed mine to get some of the hard pipe and valves out of the way.  Before I did this, I purchased a new catalytic converter that did not use the AIR tube.  The model I bought was a Dynomax 15146, which is a universal converter intended for 84/85 Turbo Regal.   On my '83 T Type, in place of the AIR pump/alternator belt, I used a shorter 10mm x 1185mm belt to drive just the alternator (Other years may have a different belt configuration).  I was able to pass IL emission this way.

ELECTRONIC SPARK CONTROL (ESC) - The ESC system is what made the turbocharger practical for Buick's V6 application. The Achilles' heel to a turbo set up is detonation, or knocking. Under boost, detonation increases and will damage the engine. Most earlier and aftermarket system uses water injection to reduce detonation. Buick engineers developed the ESC system. The system uses a sensor to "listen" for knocking. When knocking is detected, the ESC retards the engine's timing to prevent it. The more knocking, the more retarding of timing, the less performance. To avoid knocking (and therefore maximize performance) use premium, high octane, fuel. The higher the octane, the greater the fuels resistance to detonation. See the KNOCK, KNOCK page for more detailed information.

ELECTRIC EFE - The 1981-1983 Turbo V6 uses an Electrically Heated Early Fuel Evaporation System. It uses ceramic heater grid, incorporated into the gasket, under the primary bores of the carburetor. It provides a "source of rapid heat to the engine induction system during cold driveaway" (Buick Service Manual). The system is easy to test. Disconnect the EFE from the engine wiring harness. Check the resistance of the heater, it should be less than 2 ohms. If not, the heater is burned out. Next connect a test light (or voltmeter), to the harness. With the engine cold, the light should turn on. If not, the relay is probably bad. Check the proper year service relay for relay location. A bad heater or relay will not turn the SES light on. The Electric EFE was used on many other engines besides the Turbo V6.

ELECTRIC EFE II - The Electric EFE system (1981-'83) is designed to improve cold driveability and lower emissions. Unless your car is driven in cold, winter climates, you may not need it. While many engine builders spend a lot of time porting and polishing the intake and head passages, these ceramic grids have to be an obstruction. Since mine wasn't working and I didn't miss it (summer driven only), I removed it and replaced it with a normal carb gasket. Just disconnect it at the harness. It won't trip the SES light, or confuse the ECM (it is output, not input). While I don't know how much it helps, if it's not needed (or not even working), why have it in the way of the air/fuel mixture? A new electric EFE heater is very expensive.

VACUUM EFE - The 1978-1980 Turbo V6 uses a vacuum controlled Early Fuel Evaporation system. A butterfly valve is placed between the left exhaust manifold and the crossover pipe. A Thermal Vacuum Switch (TVS) passes vacuum to the valve when coolant temperatures are low. The vacuum closes the butterfly valve which blocks the exhaust path. The exhaust then travels through the crossover in the intake manifold, heating the induction system quickly. Check to make sure that the valve has not seized up. Also make sure it is closing when vacuum is applied.

VACUUM EFE II - The vacuum EFE is another system you may consider removing or disconnecting. Disabling the valve will keep exhaust out of the intake and therefore lowering it's temperature. Cooler air/fuel charge will help reduce detonation. If you have blocked the exhaust crossover passages in the heads or intake, then the EFE should be disable, as there will be no where for the exhaust to go. Removing the butterfly may help improve flow through the exhaust manifold.

1981-1983 COMPUTER COMMAND CONTROL - Since 1981 (1980 in CA), the Turbo V6 has used a Computer Command Control System (CCC) to control many engine functions. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors and controls various systems that effect vehicle performance. The ECM can recognize some operational problems and alert the driver through the "CHECK ENGINE" light. A SCAN tool can be connected to the computer by using the ALDL port under the dash. The tool will display the output of various sensors (Oxygen, RPM, etc.) and display trouble codes. The codes can also be retrieve by grounding the test terminals on the ALDL port with a jumper (wire or paper clip). Do not buy "code readers", they just fancy (and very expensive) jumpers. This tech page from the Turbo Regal Web Site will explain more: GN/GNX/T-Type Malfunction Codes.  Codes for Carb/Turbo cars can be found here: 1981/83 ECM CODES

1981-1983 MAP and BARO SENSORS - On a NA engine, the MAP and BARO are actually two sensors, but the are the same. Both are 1 bar, blue units. With the engine off, they will read the same. (The BARO is located near the ECM and has no hose connected to it).  On a turbo V6, they will not read the same. 0 vacuum is full scale on the NA MAP and BARO, but mid scale on the Turbo MAP. This is because the Turbo MAP needs to go above 0 vacuum (aka boost).

BARO and MAP off pressures are the same ambient air pressure, but different scale, so the Turbo V6 scale is off by a factor of two, because it's a 2 bar sensor (or 200 kPa). 52 x 2 = ~100.  NOTE: Some scan tools may correct for this.

VACUUM DIAGRAMS - The vacuum diagram should be on the fan shroud or in the shop manual. If not, I have most available. Here is a list of the diagrams. Some have are links to the diagrams. If you need a diagram not listed, let me know and I will scan it. Note "E" series is Riviera. All others are RWD models.


TURBO EXHAUST MANIFOLDS - The 1978 exhaust manifolds do not interchange with other years due to the head redesign in 1979. Also Riviera maniolfds do not interchange wit the other RWD models. Driver's side manifolds are the same as non-turbo units. Follow this links to images of some passenger side Turbo Manifolds; TURBO V6 EXHAUST MANIFOLDS  

In 1983 Buick switched to stainless steel tubular exhaust manifolds. The size difference is significant. The '83 crossover has a 1 3/4" ID while the '82 has a 1 3/8" ID. But bigger is not necessarily better. They will bolt directly on 1979 and later heads. (I am not sure if the up-pipe will work on all combinations. If not, fabricating one shouldn't be to difficult. The '82 and '83 use the same up-pipe.) The 1984-'85 Turbo Regal uses the same manifolds and crossover as the '83. Note: Riviera manifolds also changed in 1983, but I am not sure about interchangeability.

CRACKED EXHAUST MANIFOLDS - Prior to 1983, the Turbo 3.8 used cast iron manifolds. Just like the later units, they are prone to cracking between the center and rear cylinders on the driver's side. I had one that was completely cracked in two! Check yours, you may be losing exhaust pressure here. It may be hidden under the thermac stove. The driver's side cast manifold is the same on turbo and non-turbo engines and should be cheap to replace.

EXHAUST MANIFOLD GASKETS - Buick V6 engines do not come with exhaust manifold gaskets. Most rebuilders, however, use them. After blowing out three gaskets, all at the number 2 cylinder (right, front), I quit using them. Instead, I use a very thin coat of Permatex Ultra-Copper. Just check the the mating surface on the manifold is in plane. If not, take it to a machine shop. More importantly, torque each bolt to proper specs and recheck often!

DOWNPIPES - The RWD Buick V6 engines as share a common downpipe (DP).  It did enlarge in size slightly in and gain a 4-bolt mounting flange for the converter around 1981/82.  The 84/85 DP is similar, but not a direct swap.  The top are different, but the 78/83 has the simpler bends.  Hopefully a shop that can do 84/85 DP's can do 78/83's as well.  I would recommend a 2" DP.  Here are the two side by side 


ALCOHOL INJECTION - Alcohol injection is a great way to run more boost, especially on a turbo system that can't utilize an intercooler.  ALCOHOL INJECTION PAGE

ROCHESTER CARBURETOR NUMBERS - All 1978-83 Turbo V6 engines originally came with a Rochester Carburetor. In 1981, (1980 in California) Buick began to use computer controlled carburetors. Due to the complicated emissions/vacuum system of these cars, I believe it is important to have the correct carburetor. Follow this link to a table with the production numbers and models used; TURBO V6 CARBURETORS

"ROCHESTER CARBURETORS" By Doug Roe- I highly Recommend this book. It explains the operation, repair, tuning and performance modifications of the Quadrajet and other Rochester carbs. Covers electronic and non-electronic carburetors. Published by HP Books, copyright 1981.

TURBO V6 INTAKES - Because of the draw-thru arrangement, the Turbo V6 intake manifolds are very different than their non-turbo counterparts. Follow this link to some images of an early and late Carb/Turbo intake; TURBO V6 INTAKES. There are no aftermarket intakes for the 1978/83 Turbo V6.

INTAKE MANIFOLDS - The cast iron intake manifold used on the 1978 and '79 Turbo V6 weighs about 31 pounds. The aluminum intake on later engines weighs only about 11 pounds. Before swapping to the aluminum intake, make sure you are prepared for other changes also. The aluminum intakes do not have provisions for knock sensors, are not compatible with 1978 heads and may need the matching carburetor plenum.

SPECIAL MANIFOLD BOLT - "On those Buick V6 engines equipped with the large diameter HEI integral coil distributor, a clutch head bolt (Torx) is used for clearance purposes under the distributor. This bolt is readily seen once the distributor has been pulled." The Buick Free Spirit Power Manual by John Thawley, copyright 1980.

CARBURETOR POWER SYSTEM - Non-electronic carburetors use a Power valve to enrich the mixture during acceleration or high speed operation (to prevent detonation). This system is modified for Turbo applications. (One reason a Turbo carb is different than other carbs.) The power system works off manifold vacuum. Low or no-vacuum situations open the release (open) the power valve. Most carbs get this vacuum signal from a port with the carb. In a draw-through turbo set up, the carburetor is separated from the intake by the turbocharger. Releasing the throttle when the engine is under boost will produce vacuum within the plenum. However the intake will still be supercharged. The plenum vacuum will close the power valve and lean out the mixture and cause detonation. To correct this, the power system needs to be connected to the intake manifold down stream of the turbo. It also needs to be protected from boost pressure. (When the intake is pressurized, the power valve should receive no vacuum and no pressure). This is accomplished with a Power Enrichment Control Valve (PECV) or Turbocharger Vacuum Bleed Valve (TVBV).


THERMOSTATIC AIR CLEANER (THERMAC) - The air cleaner is design to provide an incoming air temperature of about 115 degrees (F). A temperature sensor is in the carburetor elbow and is used to control a vacuum actuated damper door in the snorkel of the air box. This door on the snorkel blends incoming air with air heated by the right side exhaust manifold, via a very narrow duct. This improves winter weather driveability. Warmer climate and summer only driven vehicles can do without thus system. During WOT acceleration, the (carburetor) vacuum drops to zero and the door will slowly open to allow unblended air through the snorkel alone. There is an inline delay valve which could be remove for quicker opening of the damper door.

AIR CLEANER ASSEMBLY - On the 1978-81 Turbo V6, the complete air cleaner assembly was red with a gold "Turbo 3.8" decal. The air cleaner assembly on 1982 and '83 models consisted of a chrome elbow with V6 logo, a black duct and black air cleaner box. The openings on each end of the accordion duct are 3" inner diameter. Check your duct's pleats for cracks and rips, which will allow unfiltered air in.

AIR CLEANER ASSEMBLY II - The stock air cleaner assembly is very restrictive. While replacing the filter with an OEM style K&N will help, the real problem is the air box. The snorkel opening is tiny. Replacing the air box assembly with a K&N cone type filter will remove this restriction. The trade off is the loss of the Thermac system. To keep the K&N cone away from the engine's heat, place it between the fan shroud and inner fender. Then use some flexible duct to pull fresh air from behind the grille (or under the bumper), through the opening behind the headlights and to the cone. Remember to plug the Thermac's vacuum source. Hot Rod magazine (6/81) reported a 0.13 sec decrease in quarter mile times by just removing the AC duct (breathing warm, underhood air) on an '81 TR. The K&N cone should provide similar results.


PLENUM COOLANT - The plenum (adapter between carb and turbo) on the earlier, 1978-81, turbo engine uses engine coolant to heat the air/fuel mixture and improve cold start/cold weather drive-ability. At normal temperatures, however, this heat hurts performance. Try using a lower temperature thermostat. (160 degree units are available at most parts stores.) Another trick is to disconnect the coolant lines, or better yet, install a shutoff valve. Opened in the winter and closed in the summer. Source: Sunday Driver Part 2, Hot Rod Magazine, June, 1981.

THERMOSTAT - Changing to 160 degree thermostat will help the engine run cooler and this may help reduce detonation.. Running without a thermostat on the computer controlled car ('81 and up) will cause the ECM to stay in the "open loop" configuration and not run as efficient. A 160 thermostat should be available at a local parts store. I believe it is the same unit as the SBC uses.


TURBOCHARGER INTERCHANGE - The Buick turbo did not change much throughout the Carb years. This page lists part number to help identify which parts are the same and which can interchange. TURBOCHARGERS

"TURBOCHARGERS" by Hugh MacInnes - A highly recommend book about turbocharger design. Not Buick specific, but lots of great information. Published by HPBooks, copyright 1984..

TURBOCHARGER INSTALLATION - According to a TSB issued in April, 1982, "The turbocharger primary support on any installation has to be carried by the turbine housing, otherwise the turbine end bearing carries most of the load, causing the turbine piston ring seal to wear; allowing the exhaust gases to penetrate the center housing rotating assembly, and promote coking." . Basically start with the turbo support bracket to the intake, then the bracket to the turbine, next the compressor to intake, followed by the plenum brackets and finally the EGR pipe/manifold.

TURBOCHARGER GASKET/SEAL KIT- FEL-PRO has a turbo mounting gasket kit that has the following gaskets: Downpipe/Elbow Seal, EGR valve, EGR chamber to intake and plenum (x2), Plenum to turbo compressor, turbo compressor to manifold, and oil pan drain connector. The complete kit number is ES 72507 (1978-83 year) and was picked up at my local auto parts store for $19.44. "We found it looking through a new FP catalog. It was not in their computer." Thanks to Trent - Buicksandrail on TB.com.

DOWNPIPE TO TURBO SEAL - You may have a hard time finding a GM part number for the doughnut seal (gasket) used between the downpipe and turbocharger elbow. It is not pictured in some of the Illustrations catalogs. All RWD Turbo V6's use the same seal, from 1978 to 1987. It is GM part number 1262500, Group 3.611. All Rivieras use GM # 25504003. This part is NOT Turbo, or even V6, specific. Local parts stores should carry it, but bring in the old one to match it up. If you tell them what it is for, they will give you the old "Dealer-Only" line.

INCREASING BOOST - ADJUSTABLE WASTEGATE ACTUATOR - Adjusting maximum boost may be accomplished by changing the rod length of the actuator. For all years, except the 1981 model, shortening the rod will increase boost. The factory boost level is 8-9 psi. Increase the boost as much as possible without causing the engine to knock. Use high octane fuel to prevent knocking (read about the ESC). If your turbocharger or actuator has ever been replaced, it should already be adjustable. If it is not, this tech page from the the Turbo Regal Web Site has directions for converting a non-adjustable rod to adjustable. www.gnttype.org Adjustable Wastegate

BOOST CREEP - I have heard several people comment that they can get up to 10, 11, and even 12 psi by "keeping their foot into it". I was seeing this also. If I removed my exhaust and replaced the air box with a K&N cone, I could get up to 12+ psi with no problem. This isn't what is supposed to happen! The stock wastegate actuator should limit boost to 9 psi and no more. If it goes much higher, then the boost is "creeping up". At 9 psi, the WG flapper opens and relieves exhaust pressure away from the turbine. If the hole is too small, then not enough pressure is relieved, and boost continues to rise. This is boost creep. I am starting to think that this is a common problem. Or at least on all 82/83 cars, since in '82 the turbine was made smaller than previous years. The cure is to enlarge (port) the WG hole just a little. Unfortunately this requires removing the turbocharger. While higher boost is good, creeping boost is not reliable or consistent. A ported WG hole should give rock steady control, insuring the boost goes up to and not beyond where it is set.

LOW BOOST? - I have found that the most common source of low boost is the Quadrajet's secondaries failing to open.  When then don't open, boost is limited to about 6 psi.  Check the NA notes page for a procedure for checking the secondaries in the carb section titled "Secondaries Not Opening?"

TURBO POWER SWITCH - The "Turbo Power" switch controls the yellow and orange indicator lights. The yellow light turns on at about 3.5 psi and the orange at 6 psi. They can be adjusted by turning the screws. The switch is located on the left inner fender or fire wall. The 1978-'79 Buicks use two switches GM part number 1259745 and 1262154, which have been discontinued. The '80-'83 pressure switch is the same switch that is used on '84-'87 Turbo Regals with the digital dash (RPO U52) option. It is still available from GM (part# 25503871). The original switch is green, but replacements are black For non-operating lights, see TURBO POWER LIGHTS DIAGNOSIS.

AFTERMARKET BOOST GAUGE - The stock boost ("Turbo Power") gauge only uses two lights and is unreliable. An aftermarket boost gauge is very useful for tuning the Turbo V6. Changes in maximum boost can be the result of various things (plugged converter, cracked manifold, bad actuator, etc.). "Seat of the pants" won't always tell you when you've lost a few psi. Stock set-ups run about 9 psi and an easy way to up performance is to increase the maximum boost (see "adjustable waste gate actuator"). I recommend an Auto Meter Ultra-Lite 4301. It measures 30 In. Hg Vacuum and 20 psi Boost. (It is unlikely that you will run more than 20 psi of boost, so don't lose scale with a 30 psi gauge.) It also matches the Turbo Regal's stock gauges well. See the LINKS page for Auto Meter.

1981 WASTEGATE ACTUATOR - For 1981, Buick changed the wastegate actuator from a normally closed design, to a normally open design. It was an attempt to improve fuel economy that was quickly abandoned in 1982 in favor of increased performance. (The NC design has more precise boost control.) The 1981 unit can be identified by the use of only one vacuum hose (instead of two). To accommodate this change, the wastegate lever on the elbow was rotated 180 degrees. A conversion is as simple replacing '81's actuator and elbow with '82/'83 units. If the turbocharger has been replace, this may have already been done.

RWD Vs. FWD TURBO ID - The 1978/83 RWD turbos can easily be distinguished from the FWD (Riviera) turbos. The RWD turbo will have the three mounting bolts on the compressor outlet each spaced 3 inches apart. The compressor outlet will also have a 90 degree turn at the end to meet the intake manifold.

BUICK Vs. PONTIAC TURBO ID - The 1978/83 Buick V6 RWD turbos appear very similar to the 1980/81 Pontiac V8 turbo. They do not interchange. They can be identified by the three mounting bolts on the compressor outlet. The Buick's form an equilateral triangle each spaced 3 inches apart. The Pontiac's are 3", 2.5" and 2.5" apart. The Buick's compressor A/R ratio (stamped inside the outlet) is 0.42. The Pontiac uses a 0.60 compressor A/R.


TRANSMISSION - All Turbo V6 Buicks, regardless of year or model used used an automatic transmission. In 1983, the RWD transmission gained an overdrive gear (200-4R).

REAR AXLE  - All 1978-83 A/G body use the 7.5" rear.  The 8.5" wasn't introduced until 1984.  

REAR AXLE RATIO - The rear axle ratio was lowered (raised numerically) through the years until 3.42 in 1983 (which used a overdrive 4-speed automatic). To check the ratio on RWD cars, jack up one wheel, rotate it two times, and count the number of time the driveshaft turns. The RWD cars should have a 2.41, 2.73, 3.08, 3.23 or 3.42.

POSITRACTION - Not all RWD Turbo Buicks have positraction, if fact most, it seems, don't. The turbo's lag seems to be built in way to "ease into the throttle". You may not need a posi rear - many 1984-'87 owners simply use air bags (which go into the rear spring) successfully to aid traction. To check, jack up both wheels, turn one and the other will turn in the same direction if it is positraction. Also, look for a tag bolted to the differential. Please note that Positraction is Chevrolet's name for limited slip differential.

MCSS REAR AXLE  - The 1983-87 Chevrolet Monte Carlos SS came with either a 3.42 or 3.73 rear gear and many had positraction.  These are relativly cheap and easy to find.  It's likely that swapping the complete rear axle will be much cheaper and easier than purchasing and installing a new ring/pinion and limited slip differential.  Don't pay the premium for a 8.5" rear unless it's really needed.  The 7.5" can take some abuse.


1983 HYDROBOOST II BRAKE SYSTEM - In 1983, the Turbo Buicks switch from a traditional vacuum-assisted power brake unit to the Hydroboost II. This system is borrowed from diesel applications (low engine vacuum) and uses the power steering pump to assist the brakes. It is also found on all 1984 and some 1985 Turbo Buicks. Here is a link to a diagnostic diagram from the www.gnttype.org website: www.gnttype.org/techarea/brakes/hydroboost.jpg

TURBO HOOD ORNAMENTS - I believe all Turbo Buicks, with the exception of the Riviera, use the same ornament. The base is different depending on models. GM sold the ornaments with the base, so each has a different part number. Finding the right ornament, with the right base may be difficult. Try looking for an ornament with the turbo top and another with the correct base and then combine.

1983 REGAL T TYPE EMBLEMS - The fender and decklid emblems on the 1983 Regal T Type differ from the '84-'86 models. The "T" is vertical and not slanted. For some reason, the Buick parts catalog has the same number for the '83 emblem as the 1984-'86 emblem. The correct GM part number for the 1983 T Type emblem is 25509699. It was also used on the 1981 Riviera and 1982-'85 Skyhawk.


REGAL "SPORT COUPE" VS. "T TYPE" - Turbo Regals from 1978 through 1982 used the Sport Coupe name. In 1983, it became T-type and continued until 1986. Other Buicks also used the Sport Coupe and T-type designations. It is common for all Turbo Regals that are not Grand Nationals to be referred to as T Types, regardless of the year.

RIVIERA "S TYPE" VS. "T TYPE" - Sport model Rivieras with the Turbo V6 standard used the S Type name for 1979 and '80. In 1981, it became the T-type and continued until 1985. The name continued after '85, but the turbo engine did not in the Riviera. The car was downsized in 1986.

. 1982 REGAL GRAND NATIONAL SPORT COUPE - This name refers to the few 1982 Regals that came with both the Grand National (RPO T2E) and the Sport Coupe (RPO W11) packages. The majority of the '82 Turbo Regals are not Grand Nationals and the majority of '82 Grand Nationals are not Turbo Regals.

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